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The development of regionalism and regionalisation had – obviously – diff erent paths of development both in terms of time and space. For example, in case of the Eastern bloc countries during the socialist era, we can hardly (if at all) speak about regionalism as a form of medium level self-governance, because the principality of statism did not – and in order to gain and keep full power and control over the whole society, could not – allow the evolution of such a "meso-level". After the collapse of the socialist block, the situation has been and still is under transition: in the ex-communist countries located in the neighbourhood of the developed Europe (e.g. Hungary), some kind of regionalisation evolved, showing not only similarities, but also diff erences in relation to the Western models. This study discusses the future possibilities of this "meso-level" in Hungary. The most important dilemma concerning the enforcement of the regional medium level in Hungary is whether there should be counties, large counties, NUTS 2 regions or NUTS 1 regions. There are multiple options, with diff erent implications for the distribution of tasks among governmental and municipal authorities. The Hungarian system of counties (NUTS 3 level) has been able to adapt to the changing social, economic and political circumstances throughout the past centuries, and also had a signifi cant role in preserving values and identity; therefore, this system is discussed with emphasis in our study.

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This study is an analysis based on the final results of the Romanian census from 2011. The permanent (stable) population of Romania is 20,121,641 persons. Of these, however, the personal data of 1.18 million were imported from national registers without the persons themselves being surveyed. Therefore, their nationality and mother tongue is not known. This poses several problems and it also decreases the reliability of the results. We focus on two things in this study. On the one hand, we analyse and evaluate the characteristics of the organisation and the methodology of the census from 2011, the population of the country, the data concerning economic activity and nationality, pointing out the most striking shortcomings.
We separately analyse the structure of the population of "unknown ethnicity (nationality)". On the other hand, we analyse the economic activity and the overall educational level of the Romanian society. Furthermore, we study the occupational stratifi cation by ethnicity, paying special attention to the ethnic Hungarian population of Romania.

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The existence of agglomeration economies and the eff ects on the process of regional development has long preoccupied researchers in the fi eld of economics as well as social studies. Since the beginning of the last century many authors have tried to shed light on the causes of economic agglomerations, trying to describe the factors (transport costs, information fl ow, personal relations, etc.) playing an important role in the clustering process. Although their role has signifi cantly changed during the last years, their cumulated eff ect – due to economic principles – has been linked more and more often to the concept of territorial capital. Regarding the typology of economic agglomerations, we can distinguish a series of diff erent classifi cations from the simplest ones to the more complex versions, based on the functional relationships, the specialization, territorial concentration as well as a series of other characteristics which make the respective clusters unique. Th e goal of the paper is to off er a comprehensive overview on the results of cluster research in the last years, insisting on the role of agglomeration economies in the process of regional development, with a special emphasis on the Romanian situation, the importance of the regional dimension, the shortcomings of the innovation system as well as the new opportunities off ered by Structural Funds.

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2021-03-31

Editor: Horváth István (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.) State socialism was a social-historical reality, in the forms of life and life situations it created / allowed. Its lifestyle project: the residential area with blocks of...

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