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The article offers an analysis of the (1) typology of bilingualism based on the level of self assessed proficiency of the two languages (2) the language choice patterns, (3) the minority representations of the social norms referring to the use of the Romanian language, among the ethnic Hungarian, Romania's 1,6 million large minority population, characterized by a relative large degree of Hungarian – Romanian bilingualism. The analysis is based on the data offered by a survey taken in the fall of 2004 on a representative sample for the Hungarian population of Transylvania. As a synthesis the author offers an estimation of the trends toward language shift, comparing the particularities of different sub regions of Transylvania. Author's e-mail: E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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The main findings of the research are: Socio-cultural factors bear only small and limited influence on the development of national identity of young people in Hungary. However, on the base of socio-cultural characteristics distinctively different types of national identity could be identified. National identity characterized by giving preference to a closed, cultural concept of a nation occurred only in an environment primarily reflecting socio-cultural consequences of cultural disadvantages. We identified a definitive structure of consistent and logical patterns in the way of thinking about the national identity in young people. No definite causation relations, but rather probability trends were identified between religious belief, religious affiliation and national identity. Rejection of freedom of selfidentification of being Hungarian, understanding a concept of a nation by employing the logic of a culture-nation concept and national emotions are characteristic features of those young people whose immediate family and wider residential environment bear adverse socio-cultural characteristics. István Murányi is a teacher of University of Debrecen, Department of Sociology; E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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The study is an analysis of national identity and its manifestation in ethnically mixed areas such as Transylvania. The collective identity, and especially the national identity, anifests itself in different modalities according to the social status of the persons, and this aspect has
to be kept in view for an adequate analysis of the collective identity. Thematically the analysis comprises some dimensions of the minority national identity of the citizens, such as: the importance of the national belonging in the individual's attitude, and disposition, the criteria of appertaining to the national community, the cognitive and affective connections of the concept of homeland, the perception of the dimensions of their own national group, the national auto- and hetero-stereotypes, the perception of the minority situation and discrimination and their possible identity building (forming) function, the attitude towards the „other" nation, the nature of the regional linkage, the relevance of the national symbols and holidays, national reference persons, a differentiated analysis of some minority and political aspects questions of the historical consciousness, perspectives on social position. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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The first issue of Transylvanian Society (2003) contained a comprehensive paper on the specific circles of the romanian media's public. In the present issue, the same author, Tivadar Magyari, member of the Sociology Department of the Babes-Bolyai University, adds new, fresh data to the relatively stable general picture. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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This paper aims to investigate those institutions, practices and social context that formed the frames of transylvanian hungarian identity in the period after Trianon. The starting point of this research were the reactions of transylvanian hungarians to the outcome of the public vote on their double citizenship, organized in Hungary on 5 december, 2004.
The author is co-worker of the Sociology Department of Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Full text (in Hungarian)

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